necrosis vs apoptosis

Definition Programmed and coordinated cell death Cell death along with degradation of tissues by hydrolytic enzymes
Causative agents Physiological and pathological processes Hypoxia, toxins
Morphology ·         No inflammatory reaction

·         Death of single cell

·         Cell shrinkage

·         Cytoplasmic blebs on membrane

·         Apoptotic bodies

·         Chromatin condensation

·         Phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies by macrophages

·         Inflammatory reaction always present

·         Death of many adjacent cells

·         Cell swelling initially

·         Membrane disruption

·         Deranged organelles

·         Nuclear disruption

·         Phagocytosis of cell debris by macrophages

Molecular changes ·         Lysosomes and other organelles intact

·         Initiation of apoptosis by loss of signals of normal cell survival and by action of agents injurious to the cell

·         Triggered by intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway (pro and anti-apoptotic members of Bcl-2 family), extrinsic (cell death receptor mediated) pathway

·         Lysosomes breakdown with liberation of hydrolytic enzymes

·         Initiated by various etiologies (ischemia, hypoxia, chemicals, physical agents, microbes)

·         Cell death by ATP depletion, membrane damage, free radical injury



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